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Question: Discuss about the Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security. Answer: Introduction Cloud security is the wide range of approaches and strategies of securing data and information with the help of cloud computing. Several technologies are utilized in this process. These technologies and strategies are given to the user to secure their data perfectly and safely. The infrastructure of cloud computing is also involved in this security procedure (Rong, Nguyen Jaatun, 2013). It is the sub part of information security and network security. The Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach (Almorsy, Grundy Mller, 2016). This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of G overnment (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. The following report outlines a brief description about cloud security for the case study of Department of Administrative Services or DAS. The report provides a privacy strategy proposal for DAS. It includes the collection and control of applied personal data, utilization and security of various digital identities, securing and accessing personal data, rectifying personal data and proper recommendations to control and secure data with cloud computing (Liu, 2012). The report also covers a strategy to secure and protect personal data with proper recommendations. The description of the above discussion is given in the following paragraphs. Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach (Behl Behl, 2012). This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of Government (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. DAS gives the integrated services to the remaining agencies and departments of the government. There is another policy of the government, which is the Cloud First approach. This is utilized for upgrading and obtaining various services. The various tasks that are to be done by DAS are purchasing a personnel and HR management application. This particular application will give a human resources suite, prov iding a perfect management of performance (Lee, 2012). The employees of DAS will store the information directly into this particular application with the help of a secured URL. A secured application of transferring data will upload huge amount of data. It is the responsibility of DAS to check whether the data entered in correct or not. There will be a new application known as the Commercial Off The Shelf or COTS will control the public cloud section. All the authenticated credentials of the authorized users are uploaded to enable the users to access the payroll of the agency. It is noticed that authentication is done only by utilizing the agency ID credentials of the users (Aljawarneh, 2012). All the agencies in the Whole of Government are required to utilize the Active Directory Federated Services of ADFS for federation to the Azure AD instance for authorization and authentication. Privacy Strategy for Personal Data Department of Administrative Services or DAS will have to secure their personal data through a good quality of privacy strategy. There are various steps to protect their personal data (Tsai et al., 2012). The most important step is to manage their personal information so that it is not accessible by hackers or unauthorized people. The steps to secure the personal data of DAS are as follows: Secured Browser: Utilization of a safe and secured Web browser is the first and the foremost step in managing the personal data (Tianfield, 2012). This can help to prevent from entering into the unauthorized websites and all sorts of virus attacks. Passwords: Utilization of several passwords is another important step to prevent all types of data hacking (Kulkarni et al., 2012). DAS should keep specific passwords in all of their private information and they should change those passwords on a regular basis. Collection and Management of Solicited Personal Information a) Logging Out: This is an important step to secure the data form hacking. Every time the users should log out from the system so that other people are not able to access their data. b) Anti Virus: This is the most basic and the easiest way to secure personal data. DAS should install antivirus software in their cloud to protect their personal data from virus attacks (Chou, 2013). DAS can secure their personal information by blocking the access to the systems and personal websites (Suresh Prasad, 2012). The disclosure and utilization of personal information can lead the organization into serious security problems. Use and Security of Digital Identities A digital identity is data of an organization that is utilized to depict an external representative (Iankoulova Daneva, 2012). This particular representative can be an individual, an organization or an application. Digital identities has several advantages. The main advantages of digital identities are as follows: Security: The main advantage of digital identity is its security. The data is extremely safe and secured with the help of digital identity. Data Integrity: The integrity of the data is not lost because of digital identity. This is another important advantage of digital identity. Simple: Digital identity does not require many complexities and time to get implemented (Salah et al., 2013). This is extremely simple and thus this is another important advantage of digital identity. Fast: Digital identities are extremely fast and this is another important advantage of digital identity. However, implementing digital identities in DAS can sometimes turn to be risky. These digital identities should be safe and secured so that there exists no loopholes of hacking in the data. The utilization and security of digital identities are the most important step to secure the cloud. Limited Access to Systems: All the users should not be allowed to use all the systems (Malik Nazir, 2012). DAS should allow and unauthorized users to access their computers and systems. Private WiFi Connection: DAS should install a private wireless connection for internet access. Security and access to personal information is another important step to save the privacy. The information should be secured so that the unauthorized access to various information is mitigated (Hamlen et al. 2013). Department of Administrative Services should secure their personal information by limiting the access to their personal information from unauthorized users. Quality and Correction of Personal Information The quality and the correction of personal information is another important step to keep the privacy of the data. DAS should focus on the quality of their information so that there exists no loopholes in the privacy (Liu, 2012). Moreover, the information should be corrected from time to time to avoid all sorts of errors in the information. DAS is dealing with several dangerous information that are highly confidential. There are various ways to mitigate these risks (Von Solms Van Niekerk, 2013). It is recommended that Department of Administrative Services should focus on their security of personal information. The three ways to mitigate the privacy risks of information are as follows: Encryption: The procedure of encrypting or encoding a particular message to maintain its security without changing the inner meaning is known as encryption. It encodes the entire message into a cipher text, which is only readable by the receiver. When a sender sends a message, he sends it in an encrypted form (Stallings Brown, 2012). This saves the message from getting theft and thus security is maintained. There are two main algorithms used for encryption. They are the Symmetric Key Algorithm and the Asymmetric Key Algorithm. The symmetric key algorithm is extremely simple. The sender and the receiver are provided with a key. The sender while sending a message with encodes the message with the key. Once, the receiver receives the message, he is able to decode the message with that particular key only. No other unauthorized users will get the access of the data and thus the data is absolutely secured through encryption (Van Tilborg Jajodia, 2014). The unencrypted message is known a s the plain text while, the encrypted message is known as the cipher text. The main advantage of encryption is that it is extremely secured. The second algorithm for encryption is the asymmetric algorithm. Here, the case is different from symmetric key algorithm. Here the sender and the receiver have two different keys to encode and decode the message. The sender encrypts the message with a particular key and the receiver decrypts the message with a different key. The main advantage of symmetric key algorithm is that it is extremely simple as both the keys are same. However, it has one disadvantage as well (Stallings Brown, 2012). Both the keys are same in symmetric key algorithm. Thus, if any one of them loses the key, there is a high chance that the data cannot be recovered any more. This can lead to major problem for any organization. The main advantage of asymmetric key algorithm is that the security is double than symmetric key. Since, there are two keys; there is no need to e xchange keys between the sender and the receiver. This helps to keep the keys safe and secured. However, there is a disadvantage as well. The main disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithm is its complexities. Both the keys are different and this makes it much complex than the symmetric key (Buchmann, 2013). Another disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithm is that the time consumption is more as the complexity is higher. It is highly recommended for DAS to opt for encryption, as encryption would secure their personal information. Digital Authentication: This is the second most basic and important recommended strategy to secure the data for DAS. The procedure of getting confidence in the identities of users digitally is known as digital authentication (Hamlen et al. 2013). The word authentication means to an electronic procedure, which enables any type of electronic recognition of a legal person. Authentication also saves the integrity of the data and thus it can be claimed as another strategy for privacy of data. The main advantage of digital authentication is that it mitigates the chance of data theft and fraud. In a digital authentication, the identities of the user are given to a particular information system electronically (Buchmann, 2013). There are three main factors of digital authentication. They are as follows: Knowledge Factors: These factors are nothing but the confidential knowledge of a user like the password, pin number. Ownership Factors: These factors are those that the user possesses like a credit card, one-time passwords. Inherence Factors: These factors are those factors that an user has got in inherence like the biometric identifications (Stallings Brown, 2012). Fingerprint and face recognitions are two famous inherence factors. Digital Signatures: This is the third important strategy to reduce the privacy risks is the implementation of digital signatures. DAS can protect their data by implementing this very safe and secured data security strategy in their organization. this is nothing but a digital code, which is created by public key encryption and is utilized to verify an users identity (Kahate, 2013). It also verifies the contents of the message that are sent over the network. DAS should implement digital signatures for their private cloud. The main advantages of digital signature are the speed, cost, security, authenticity, imposter prevention, time stamp and tracking. These advantages will help DAS to protect their data and thus the privacy should be secured. However, digital signatures do have some disadvantages (Salomaa, 2013). The disadvantages of digital signatures include expiry of the signatures, need for verification software, compatibility, need for implementation of digital certificates. In sp ite of these disadvantages, digital signatures are one of the famous strategies for privacy of data. It is highly recommended for DAS. Personal Data Protection Strategy Department of Administrative Services or DAS is having problems in securing their personal data. This type of data should be secured and safe on immediate basis. There is a high risk that the data will be lost and the hackers and the unauthorized users will be able to access them (Salah et al. 2013). The access should be authorized so that the integrity of the information does not get lost. This will create a major problem as every data and information are important for DAS. The access and disclosure of the personal information should be authorized so that there exists no chance of hacking and modification of personal information (Salomaa, 2013). There are several ways to stop this hacking like installing antivirus, firewalls. The procedure to prevent the identity of personal data is known as de-identification of personal data. There are several ways to stop the identification of the personal data of DAS. They will have to adopt certain measures to mitigate or reduce the hacking of data (Liu, 2012). The best ways to prevent identification of personal data is the antivirus, security policies and firewalls. Implementing these techniques can help DAS to prevent their data identification. Digital identities are an important solution to their problem. A digital identity is data of an organization that is utilized to depict an external representative. This particular representative can be an individual, an organization or an application (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). There are various advantages of digital identities. The advantages of digital identities are as follows: Security: The main advantage of digital identity is its security. The data is extremely safe and secured with the help of digital identity. Data Integrity: The integrity of the data is not lost because of digital identity. This is another important advantage of digital identity. Simple: Digital identity does not require much complexities and time to get implemented. This is extremely simple and thus this is another important advantage of digital identity. Fast: Digital identities are extremely fast and this is another important advantage of digital identity. Security of Personal Data Security and access to personal information is another important step to save the privacy. The information should be secured so that the unauthorized access to various information is mitigated (Katz Lindell, 2014). Department of Administrative Services should secure their personal information by limiting the access to their personal information from unauthorized users. Securing and archiving personal data is an important step to secure the personal information. DAS should implement various strategies to secure their personal information as it is important for their business (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). Personal data are protected and secured through several strategies. Three strategies are recommended for Department of Administrative Services. They are as follows: Periodic Back up and Recovery: Personal information should be recovered periodically and back ups should be taken time to time (Peltier, 2016). This will help Department of Administrative Services to recover their lost data and to will not lose their confidential data any more. Remote Data Movement: Real time and non real time movement of data from a particular storage to another secured storage is another strategy for protecting data and information. There is always a high chance of losing of data and information if they are stored for longer period of time (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). The system or the storage may be damaged and thus the data can be lost. Two popular forms of data movement are the replication and the remote copy. These two techniques will help DAS to save their data and to save the storage system. Data Lifecycle Management: DLM or Data Lifecycle Management is the automatic movement of data to offline and online storage (Von Solms Van Niekerk, 2013). The major features of data lifecycle management are keeping the data in a particular storage that is read easily and cannot be modified. These three strategies will help DAS to secure their personal information and the information will not be lost. Conclusion Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that, Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach. This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of Government (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. They have to secure their data and information through various ways and strategies. The report provides a brief description on how to manage and control personal information, utilization and security of digital identities, security and access to personal information, quality and rectification of personal information. The report also provides perfect recommenda tions on several strategies to secure the privacy of personal information in DAS. The report further covers a personal data protection strategy for DAS with the ability to control the unauthorized access to the personal information. Proper recommendations are also provided to mitigate the security risks for the protection of data. References Ali, M., Khan, S. U., Vasilakos, A. V. (2015). Security in cloud computing: Opportunities and challenges.Information Sciences,305, 357-383. Aljawarneh, S. (2012). Cloud security engineering: Avoiding security threats the right way.Cloud Comput. Adv. Des. Implementation, Technol., 147. Almorsy, M., Grundy, J., Mller, I. (2016). 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