Thursday, September 3, 2020

The influx of foreign worker Essays

The inundation of remote specialist Essays The inundation of remote specialist Essay The inundation of remote specialist Essay Then again, pace of jobless Malaysian increments as Job open door being removed. The business like to enlist outside specialists as they are happy to acknowledge lower pay from local people particularly In the lower talented Jobs. Thusly, the Jobs opening for local people are decreasing as they need to contend with the outsiders . The weight will be put on the legislature as social government assistance costs will be higher. The inundation of remote laborers coming to Malaysia will likewise cause diminished national pay. Most likely the fundamental driver of their coming is to work and get by. This has brought about colossal outpouring of Malaysian money to the outside laborers root nation and diminishes the benefits of Ringing Malaysia. One significant downside is that the laborers should send some cash compensation back to their nation of origin for their family, rather than spending it. Another point Is that the Increases of crime percentage In our nation. There are outside specialists who come here don't have sufficient wages and don't have a Job for retrain period . In this way, they will confront money related troubles as the average cost for basic items will be the weight. Accordingly, Involving in the crimes happen, for example, thievery, robbery lifting, assault and mobs. Crimes that regularly happen compromise their own security as well as will influence the picture of our nation. The flood of remote specialists into Malaysia is anything but another wonder. Taking a gander at the worry issues, it is an assignment for the legislature to scan for an instrument so as to draw in and control this wonder before it become more terrible. Greater part of network consider them as troublemakers who ought to be discarded. Be that as it may, are remote specialists just have an unfriendly impact, or Is It something acceptable comes regardless of the nearness of these outside laborers? All in all, its critical to have some authority over the utilization of outside specialists and to ensure that utilizing them doesn't upset the work showcase for nearby laborers . Be that as it may, Malaysia is still needing remote laborers so as to keep up monetary development. In this way, the administration assumes a significant job on adjusting the circumstance with the goal that the strategy of having remote laborers in Malaysia will have most extreme advantage to the nation. The deluge of remote laborer By similarly lower pay from local people particularly in the lower talented Jobs. Subsequently, the Jobs Another point is that the increments of crime percentage in our nation. There are remote the weight. Accordingly, including in the crimes happen, for example, thievery, are outside specialists just have an antagonistic impact, or is it something acceptable comes.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essay Topics About Technology - Guidelines For Writing The Best Essay Topic

Essay Topics About Technology - Guidelines For Writing The Best Essay TopicIf you are writing an essay on technology, you will have to be careful about the topic of your essay. You will need to think carefully about the topic that you want to discuss. Your essay will most likely be an assignment that is graded for the purpose of finding your best writing skills and abilities. Therefore, you should consider giving some thought to how you would answer the questions that would be asked by the academic counselor.There are plenty of essay topics about technology. However, the best ones are the ones that provide a very well written essay that does not present any negative or awkward or even offensive topics. The best essay topics about technology include the following: IT, networking, video games, internet usage, scientific research, education, and virtual reality. Here are the steps to writing the best essay on technology.Before you start writing, you should start thinking about the subje ct and choose the best article or essay topic to write about. Choose the topics based on how you can make them interesting for you. In other words, think about what you like to read, watch, or hear about and then write about it. Even if you are unable to write about it for the topic of your essay, you can still choose to write about it and then read about it in an article or essay that is related to that topic.One thing that you should keep in mind when you write the essay topic for your essay is that you should not think too much about the subject. It is important to focus on the topic. Think about the topic first, but do not overthink the topic. This can create some problems because it can cause you to come up with an outline that may seem like it is related to the topic, but it is not. In other words, instead of trying to remember what the topic is, just consider the topic itself and write about it.Another thing that you will need to keep in mind is to stay focused on the topic. The main idea of the essay will have to be very clear in your mind so that it will be easy for you to remember at the end of the essay. Do not let your thoughts get distracted by irrelevant things such as how to write your name correctly, how to write your name, or how to organize your essay.When you are choosing the essay topic for your essay, try to avoid topics that you have read about before. For example, if you are going to write about technology related to astronomy, you will have to avoid topics that are about stars or astronomy. This will help you stay focused on the subject of your essay. By having an outline in mind, you will know exactly what to write about.In addition to this, you should always try to avoid writing the essay topic while sitting down at your desk. Instead, you should sit down at your desk and then try to brainstorm as much as possible without writing anything down. At the end of the brainstorming process, you will have something that will serve as your ou tline.As you can see, there are lots of essay topics about technology that you can choose from. These are all important steps to remember if you want to write an effective essay. Therefore, do not let yourself become stuck because it can be very difficult to move from one topic to another because the topics are related to each other.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Early Learning and Childcare

Early learning and childcare 63 Trafford rd rushden northans nn10 Abigail wignall sh40856/NCC task 1 pg1 Task1. 1 From birth to adulthood kids constantly develop create and learn,if youngsters don't grow propely they might be not able to arrive at their maximum capacity. Every single youngsters follow a comparative example of develpoment,however every kid is diffrent and may create at a diffrent rate. There are three zones of advancement, physical, intellectual,social and enthusiastic. heres is a guide of how they produce for the accompanying age ranges â€Å"taken from study book early learning and childcare†. - 3yrs physical advancement by6months a kid will:  ·turn their head towars sounds and development  ·watch a grown-ups face while taking care of  ·smile at familar faces and voices  ·reach up to hold their feet when lying on their backs  ·hold and shake a clatter  ·put everythings in their mouths somewhere in the range of 6months and 1year  ·move from sitti ng with help to sitting alone  ·roll over from their stomach to their back  ·begin to crawl, slither or mix on their base  ·push on or push against grown-up hands or furniture to arrive at a standing position  ·raise arms to be lifted  ·turn and look into when they hear their name pat and jab objects when playing  ·pass objects from hand to hand  ·look for things thathave been covered up or dropped  ·reaches hand toward wellspring of food Between one and two years  ·begin to walk  ·sits alone inconclusively  ·feed themselves  ·push and pull toys while strolling  ·wave farewell  ·point or make commotions to indiacte needs  ·enjoy an image book  ·shake head for no  ·uses thumb and initial two fingers to grasp  ·crawl upstairs  ·stoops to get things from floor  ·begins to show prefrence for onr hand  ·builds tower of not many blocks  ·holds pastel in palm and makes blemishes on paper Between two and three  ·Kneels to play  ·throws kicks b all  ·builds bigger bruck tower  ·pour fluids  ·uses pencil to make imprints and round scrawls Newborn to a quarter of a year the social and enthusiastic improvement ought to be the kid very depdant on grown-ups maily mother for comfort,cuddles and consolation and the kid will quieten while the grown-ups do as such. Between six to nine months the kid appreciates the organization of others and start to like games, for example, look a boo and demonstrate friendship to known individuals however shywith outsiders at one to two years their social advancement ought to stretch out to play close by other kids additionally prefer to satisfy grown-ups and perform to an audience.They may get annoyed and upset if seperated from known grown-ups, an article can be utilized for comfort. By a few years they ought to be building up a feeling of own identidy and need to do things themselves and request grown-up consideration and can get hesitant to share be inclined to fits of rage outburts yet additionally appreciate playing with grown-ups or more seasoned youngsters who give consideration, and play with others same age for brief timeframes. intelectual advancement between 0-3years ought to be begining to acknowledge others are seperate creatures from ourselves and become progressively sure however still require grown-up reassurance.At 0-3 months language improvement ought to satisfy sounds 6 a year they ought to make prattling sounds and start show sentiments by screeching with delight, crying or giggling to show pleasure. one to two years they ought to join words to make sentances and by two be utilizing 50-150 words and start get discussion and get catchphrases. by 2-3 years ought to have the option to written words together to make sentances jot down utilize a few hundread words by three be participating in tunes and be asking questionns like how? why?. Physical advancement at age 3-7years yrs  ·jump with feet together  ·walk stealthily  ·go here and there the steps  ·catch and thow a ball  ·climb  ·paint  ·thread globules on to bands  ·gain controll over eating apparatuses 4years  ·throw with point  ·use sccissors  ·hold pencil be capable draw houses/individuals 5years  ·hop  ·skip  ·ride bicycle  ·jump from tallness  ·climb unquestionably  ·write  ·thread needles  ·do bands and fastens (Information discovered youngsters and youthful people groups workforce-early learning and childcare 2012) By 3-4years their scholarly improvement ought to be as per the following, capable sort objects into gropus eg shading or size.Understand basic assignments given for instance bring a story book and carry it to mummy. socialy and emotionaly they ought to have become more independant and self roused having a sense of safety and capable adapt to unfamilar countenances and environmental factors for little timeframes. By 4-5years sentence structure turns out to be progressively exact and their inquiries become progressively unpredictable imparting better, capable comprehend books as a wellspring of fun and start to recoginze wn name and composed words theve seen on scarcely any events, be capable structure some lettering and start duplicating shapes.At age 5-7years they ought to deal with books well and comprehend content has significance, be capable make up stories and regonize an expanding number of letters connecting them to sound. advancement at age 7-12 years ought to be thye kid having the option to run,hop skip,climb,swing unquestionably, and begin getting a charge out of group games and may misconceive their own abilty before age nine. Social and enthusiastic advancement at this age range should getting less dependant on grown-ups nad appreciate being in a gathering of individuals at a similar age needing to fit in with the companion rules. They ought to have an understanding that certain behavoiurs are un acceptable.Begin structure cozy connections at age eight likewise getting increasingly mi ndful of own sexual orientation can be bossy or arogant however appreciate playing with others same sex yet need grown-up consolation and help when comes to contentions in play. Intelecutaly at this age the youngster ought to have the option to read,write and take an intrest in specific subjects he appreciates by around 9, additionally be knowing diffrence tenses and grammar,read for all to hear yet may require help handling complexities of spelling, their jargon will develop if grown-ups present and empower new words and methods of utilizing lanuage.At the age 12-19years is supposed to be the period from youth to adulthood could begin at age 11 and last untill 19-20years. Adolesecnce is a progress period where youngsters grdually withdraw themselves from their folks, and structure a nearby gathering of companions. numerous physical changes happen at this phase throughout everyday life, changing their apperance and bodies, coordination and quality increment significantly albeit each individual rate can be diffrent.Adolesence for young men for the most part starts later than young ladies, young men start to create sex attributes like profound voices body hair and muscle growth,testicals and scrotom development starts in mid pubescence penis development creatures somewhat later however keeps developing for a more drawn out timeframe. Young ladies start bosom sprouting at around age ten, her pubic hair will start to develop and obscure and twist additionally body starts to turn out to be increasingly round creating bends of womanhood, By 13 a few young ladies can nearly be physicaly experienced, likewise this is normal age to bein their menstral cycle this can rely upon the period of pubertal onset.By age 15 a young lady is well on the way to e at her grown-up tallness and may have a lady figure yet her hips and bosoms may get more full. Lanuage advancement in adolescents may become imtating however that is there method of testing out there recently discovered la nguage and aptitudes like sarcasam, their coherent reasoning capacity is additionally developing and developing they may ut them into pratice by banter either fomaly or infomaly.

Monday, June 8, 2020

A critical analysis of the merits of the Capital Asset Pricing Model - Free Essay Example

Critically Analyse the Relative Merits of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and empirical approaches to asset pricing such as Fama and French model. People always search for new tools or better techniques that allow a job to be completed faster and better. It applies to every field including the finance field. Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is used to calculate the cost of capital and measure portfolio performance since 1970s. In 1990s, Fama and French show the CAPM is wrong and they proposed a better three-factor model. One would expect practitioners switching to the new better asset pricing model immediately. However, in a survey conducted by Graham and Harvey (2001), 73.5% of 392 U.S. CFOs relies to some extent on the CAPM when estimating the cost of equity. Brounen, Abe de Jong and Koedijk (2004) conducted a similar survey for 313 European firms and around 45% of on average relied on the CAPM. Why practitioners do not use the three-factor model as Fama and French (2004) claimed? There may be some possible answers. The practitioners may not know the three-factor model; or it is not cost effective to collect the extra information required by the three-factor model; or the practitioners think the three-factor model does not help much, i.e. the Fama-French three-factor model is not alw ays better than the CAPM. Now let us see what CAPM model really is and what are its main properties , its relative merits and demerits and its practical implication with respect to another famous model the Fama and French Model. The CAPM is concerned with the pricing of assets in equilibrium. The CAPM tells us how investors determine expected returns, and asset prices, as a function of risk. The model bases on the idea that not all risks should affect asset prices. In particular, a risk that can be diversified away when held along with other investments in a portfolio is not a risk at all. Only those systematic risk is counted when determining the price. The CAPM model is the extension of one period mean- variance portfolio models of Markowitz (1959) and Tobin (1958) .CAPM is based on numerous assumption and these assumptions become to some sort of basis for criticism by many people as they claim them to unrealistic. The assumptions are as follows and must be kept in mind. Investors choose their investment portfolios on the basis of expected return and variance of return over single period; It is assumed that the diversified portfolio is held by Investors Investors have the same estimates of mean, variance and covariance of all assets; The capitals markets have no transaction costs; Perfect capital market. All assets are perfectly divisible; Single-period transaction horizon. No restriction on short sales; It is also assumed as Investors can borrow and lend at the risk-free rate of return . ( means that a holding period of almost one year is required) No Taxes No commission Basically the assumptions made by the CAPM focuses on the relationship between the risk ( systematic Risk) and return is not as what happens in the real world in which all these decisions are made by companies and individuals. Well if we have a look at capital markets of the world which are not perfect but still this is a point of argument that efficient stock markets which are in developed countries are efficient enough, still there lies some chance of stock market to be priced incorrectly and which further prevents returns not to be plotted on security Market line. We can therefore see that the assumption we took for the single period transaction therefore seems reasonable enough. Investors want to hold a portfolio that reflects the whole stock market. It is very easy for the investors to diversify risk ( specific and Unsystematic) and to make portfolios which track up the stock market. Is it possible to have at a risk free rate in todays world? but in this case it is assumed that such is the case and because the investors to borrow at risk free rate because the individual investor involves more risk as compared to the risk associated with government and resultantly if we are not able to borrow at a risk free rate then the security Market line will be shallower than what we studied in the theory. Regarding the assumption of investors only receiving compensation for systematic risk seems to be very fair to me and is practically acceptable. In my view the assumptions of the CAPM seem to be idealised slightly than the real view and i think there might be some chances of existence of relationship between required return and Risk. The equation for CAPM to find the expected rate of return is mentioned below. E(ri) = Rf + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²i(E(rm) Rf) Explaining the equation . 1) Rf = Estimate the risk free rate, generally treasury bill rate. 2) Bi = Estimate the stocks beta coefficient, b, which is an index of systematic ( or non-diversifiable market) risk. 3) rm = Estimate the rate of return on market portfolio, such as standaed poors 500 stock composite index. 4) Example : Treasury bill rate ( risk free) = 8% , Bi = 1.5 market portfolio = 12% = E(ri) = 8% = 1.5 ( 12% 8%) = 14% 14% = { 8% risk free rate { 6% risk premium, stock price is 1.5 times more volatile than the market portfolio ADVANTAGES OF THE CAPM The CAPM has several advantages over other methods: It considers only systematic risk, reflecting a reality in which most investors have diversified portfolios from which unsystematic risk has been essentially eliminated. It generates a theoretically-derived relationship between required return and systematic risk which has been subject to frequent empirical research and testing. Another advantage which makes it superior than others is that it calculates cost of equity by taking into account level of risk with respect to stock market. Discount rates are used in investment appraisal which makes it a better model then weighted average cost of capital. DISADVANTAGES OF THE CAPM Besides advantages it also has some disadvantages like in order to compute CAPM we need to assign values to risk free rate of return, the equity risk premium, beta and return on market. The risk free rate of return for which we use yield on short term Government debt changes on daily basis according to different conditions prevailing. Proxy beta for the investments must be different from the companies equity beta. If the proxy for the market portfolio isnt mean-variance efficient then we wont identify the correct CML and the expected returns estimated using CAPM are unlikely to match actual returns. Similarly using a broad stock market index as proxy for the market portfolio may be inappropriate. Another difficulty is that proxy company betas uses information that may not be readily available. More over other issues regarding estimating the expected returns for individual stocks based on Capital Asset Pricing model are Do dividend adjustments in the index matter? It is assumed in C APM that Market portfolio returns includes dividends. It is therefore relevant to ask that number of indexes constructed without dividends do matter in obtaining a best estimate to see whether or not dividends are included in the index used. So where it is possible that the indexes with or without the dividends are considered here. What data frequency and time period should be used? As we know regarding estimation that the more observations we take the better the results are. If we follow this then we should be using long time periods as possible. Similarly if we take long estimation period for the beta and it is possible that the value of the actual beta will change over time and the consequential estimate for beta will be prejudiced. Naturally when this happens we will have to shorten the period. Now as we have to collect more observations over shorter time we can do this by increasing the sampling frequency. What index should be used? As we know CAPM is very precise about the ind ex. Value weighted index which consist of all assets in world should be used. As we know that very limited and small portion of assets are traded on the stock exchanges so its not possible to make such a index so we make a proxy instead. Regarding proxy the most commonly used are equal weighted and value weighted index. There are many of its anomalies which were later on discovered in the 80s and 90s, they in fact became a challenge to the CAPM as the market beta does not suffice to explain expected stock returns. The anomalies were Earning price ratio. Size Leverage Book to Market equity ratio. Basu (1977) shows that when common stocks are sorted on earning price ratio , earning price future return on high EP stocks are higher than those predicted by CAPM. Banz (1981) documented about a size effect that stock of small i.e low market value stocks earned a higher return the predicted by CAPM.small stocks have higher betas and higher returns then large stocks but the difference was mo re than what was predicted by CAPM. Bhandari ( 1988) illustrated that leverage is positively related to stocks expected returns. As we know that leverage is measured by book value of debt over market value of equity. Therefore Fama and French (1992) state the earlier findings of other researchers like , higher book to market equity ratios , ratio of book value to market value , have higher returns that are not captured by market beta which is why Fama and French launched a challenge. The Fama-French three-factor model This Model as previously discussed was put forward by Fama and French in response to the CAPM in which they think had flaws or deficiencies which were therefore overcome in their model. Fama French ( 1992) discussed about the book to market equity ratio, leverage, size and earning to price ratio and according to them the book to market equity has a greater and stronger power then the size but on the other hand, book to market equity ratio cannot be replaced by size in explaining the average returns. A three factor model was therefore proposed by Fama and French for expected returns to show more factors which could be involved and influence the expected returns which the CAPM was not able to include according to them. Variables include the return on stock index, excess returns on portfolio of small stocks over a portfolio of large stocks and excess return on portfolio of high book to market stocks over a portfolio of low book to market stocks. Following is the equation for computat ion put forward by them. (Rit Rft) = ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±i + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²1i (Rmt Rft)+ ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²2i SMBt + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ²3i HMLt + ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ µit In the equation, as discussed before SMB (small minus big) is the difference of the returns on small and big stocks, HML(high minus low) is the difference of the returns on high and low book-to-market equity ratio (B/M) stocks, and the betas are the factor sensitivities of the state variables. Fama and French argue if asset pricing is rational, size and BE/ME must proxy for risk. SMB captures the risk factor in returns related to size, HML captures the risk factor in returns related to the book-to-market equity and the excess market return, Rm R captures the market factor in stock returns. However, Fama and French (1992) show that it is unlikely as they find market betas alone has no power to explain average returns. They also find the averages of the monthly cross-sectional correlations between market betas and the val ues of these two state variables for individual stocks are all within 0.15. According to Fama and French (1995) the weaker firms which show a continuous trend of less earning over time and having high book to Market value and have positive slopes on the High minus Low , similarly the firms with a consistent trend of higher earning tend to have lower book to market value and show negative slopes on the HML. According to them, the variation in the risk factor which is relevant to earning performance is captured by HML. Similarly stocks with the property of lower returns over long term which we may refer as the losers tend to have a positive SMB and HML slopes the reason being as they are smaller and financially distressed and resultantly higher future returns. On the other hand stocks with the property of higher long term returns which we may refer to as the winners tend to have negative slopes and low future returns. Fama and French also say that market beta is not able to capture th e co variation in the returns of small stocks and which is compensated in average returns. Fama and French also show the existence of co variation in the returns on small stocks that is not captured by the market betas and is compensated in average returns. Fama and French (1993, 1996) have interpreted their three- factor model as evidence for a distress premium. Small stocks with high book- to-market ratios are firms that have performed poorly and are vulnerable to financial distress, and hence investors command a risk premium. However, the model cannot explain the momentum effect. The Fama-French three-factor model predicts the reversal of future returns for short-term winners and losers. Hence, the continuation of short-term returns is left unexplained by the model. CONCLUSION As we have been through both CAPM and Fama and French models to help investors understand the risk/reward trade-off which they face when making investments. We first introduced the CAPM, with its inherent simplicity, linking market covariance risk to expected returns. Its simplicity helps to build intuition around the concept of modelling return as a function of risk. The CAPMs simplicity is also its greatest shortcoming, as the underlying assumptions limit its ability to explain and predict actual returns. The Fama-French Three-Factor Model expands the capabilities of the model by adding two company specific risk factors SMB and HML. The three factors in concert explain most of the returns due to risk exposure, but it has its own limitations too. CAPM has stood up well against all the attacks and criticisms against it , although these criticisms have increased in the recent years , but in my view CAPM remains a very useful tool in the financial management. In my view with these M odels investors are able to make more informed investment decisions with respect to personal preference regarding the risk/reward trade-off. REFERENCING Bartholdy.J and Peare.P, (2004) , Estimation of expected return: CAPM vs Fama and French, page 1-8. Banz, R.W, (1981), The Relationship between Return and Market Value of Common Stocks, Journal of Financial Economics 9. 3-18. ( French.R and Fama.F (2003), The CAPM: Theory and Evidence, Centre for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) University of Chicago. French.R and Fama.F ( 1996), The CAPM is Wanted, Dead or Alive, The Journal of Finance, Vol. 51, No. 5. Lam Kenneth ,( 2005), Is The Fama-French Three Factor Model Better Than The CAPM,. Page 1-6. Megginson W L,( 1996.) Corporate Finance Theory, Addison-Wesley, p10, Project-specific discount rates, student accountant, April 2008. Russo. Francesco ( 2005) , C APM : The challenges of globalization. International Financial Management. Available at ( Shapiro Alex, The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Foundations of Finance Note 9, (pp 1-5). Watson D and Head A, 2007, Corporate Finance: Principles and Practice, 4th edition,FT Prentice Hall, pp222-3. Available at (

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Functional Safety, Fire Protection And Radiation Protection

Functional Safety Student: Ken Kaufmann S14004464 Lecturer/Tutor: Fatima Mansour Table of contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Standard definitions 1 2.1 IEC 61508 1 2.2 IEC 61511 1 3 Case study 2 4 Conclusion 2 5 List of references 2 6 List of Figures 3 1 Introduction The increasingly extensive automation of complex system, presents completely new challenges to the development of technical solutions. The complexity of systems, whose malfunctions cause’s significant damages, are able to cause of most errors. In work areas such as aerospace or in power stations, there has always been ahead of awareness. There are international standard and guidelines available, which defines the requirements for safety-related equipment in different depths and classifications. 2 Functional Safety Functional safety refers to the part of the security of a system, which depends on the correct function of the safety related system and other risk mitigation techniques. Functional safety does not include electrical safety, fire protection and radiation protection. Systems which are consisting out of electrical and electronic components are used since many years to perform safety functions within the most application areas. Programmable electronic systems or also called computer based systems, are used in every application area, to perform non-safety functions and recently safety functions. [1] Within every industry sector, functional safety is applicable as concept. For SafetyShow MoreRelatedSmoke Alarms1556 Words   |  7 PagesEach year most people are in disbelief and doubt that something as critical as a fire could happen to them, this skepticism has led to more deaths and property damage than should have occurred. In the current generation smoke alarms are mandatory and advancements to the technology have been occurring rapidly. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What I Have Learned About Research - 1270 Words

What I have learned about research is that it is a process, a scientific process that psychologist and scientist develop that includes many different approaches and that is carefully peer reviewed and evaluated. There is what is called the Scientific Approach where scientist have an idea or theory and based on their observation will either support the theory or the theory can be falsified by their peers. Data also goes through a review period before it is published in a scientific journal by scientist who have the knowledge and expertise to evaluate it. I also learned the difference between basic and applied research where basic research focuses mostly on things such as emotion, cognition, social behavior, personality development, learning, and neuropsychology. Basic research will be more helpful for answering fundamental questions about the nature of behavior. Applied research however, addresses more of a specific problem with a possible solution. Program evaluation covers a large area of applied research. Program evaluation assesses the social reforms and innovations that occur in government, education, the criminal justice system, industry, health care, and mental health institutions. When discussing behavioral research it is imperative to note the precedents that it has in many fields and the significance of the applications to public policy. A variable is referred to as any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that changes or varies. Any variableShow MoreRelatedWhat I Have Learned About Research At An Introductory Level986 Words   |  4 Pagesa community, or an organization. Case Studies illustrate a problem; indicate a means for solving a problem; and/or shed light on needed research, clinical applications, or theoretical materials† (APA, 2010, p. 11). 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Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security †

Question: Discuss about the Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security. Answer: Introduction Cloud security is the wide range of approaches and strategies of securing data and information with the help of cloud computing. Several technologies are utilized in this process. These technologies and strategies are given to the user to secure their data perfectly and safely. The infrastructure of cloud computing is also involved in this security procedure (Rong, Nguyen Jaatun, 2013). It is the sub part of information security and network security. The Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach (Almorsy, Grundy Mller, 2016). This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of G overnment (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. The following report outlines a brief description about cloud security for the case study of Department of Administrative Services or DAS. The report provides a privacy strategy proposal for DAS. It includes the collection and control of applied personal data, utilization and security of various digital identities, securing and accessing personal data, rectifying personal data and proper recommendations to control and secure data with cloud computing (Liu, 2012). The report also covers a strategy to secure and protect personal data with proper recommendations. The description of the above discussion is given in the following paragraphs. Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach (Behl Behl, 2012). This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of Government (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. DAS gives the integrated services to the remaining agencies and departments of the government. There is another policy of the government, which is the Cloud First approach. This is utilized for upgrading and obtaining various services. The various tasks that are to be done by DAS are purchasing a personnel and HR management application. This particular application will give a human resources suite, prov iding a perfect management of performance (Lee, 2012). The employees of DAS will store the information directly into this particular application with the help of a secured URL. A secured application of transferring data will upload huge amount of data. It is the responsibility of DAS to check whether the data entered in correct or not. There will be a new application known as the Commercial Off The Shelf or COTS will control the public cloud section. All the authenticated credentials of the authorized users are uploaded to enable the users to access the payroll of the agency. It is noticed that authentication is done only by utilizing the agency ID credentials of the users (Aljawarneh, 2012). All the agencies in the Whole of Government are required to utilize the Active Directory Federated Services of ADFS for federation to the Azure AD instance for authorization and authentication. Privacy Strategy for Personal Data Department of Administrative Services or DAS will have to secure their personal data through a good quality of privacy strategy. There are various steps to protect their personal data (Tsai et al., 2012). The most important step is to manage their personal information so that it is not accessible by hackers or unauthorized people. The steps to secure the personal data of DAS are as follows: Secured Browser: Utilization of a safe and secured Web browser is the first and the foremost step in managing the personal data (Tianfield, 2012). This can help to prevent from entering into the unauthorized websites and all sorts of virus attacks. Passwords: Utilization of several passwords is another important step to prevent all types of data hacking (Kulkarni et al., 2012). DAS should keep specific passwords in all of their private information and they should change those passwords on a regular basis. Collection and Management of Solicited Personal Information a) Logging Out: This is an important step to secure the data form hacking. Every time the users should log out from the system so that other people are not able to access their data. b) Anti Virus: This is the most basic and the easiest way to secure personal data. DAS should install antivirus software in their cloud to protect their personal data from virus attacks (Chou, 2013). DAS can secure their personal information by blocking the access to the systems and personal websites (Suresh Prasad, 2012). The disclosure and utilization of personal information can lead the organization into serious security problems. Use and Security of Digital Identities A digital identity is data of an organization that is utilized to depict an external representative (Iankoulova Daneva, 2012). This particular representative can be an individual, an organization or an application. Digital identities has several advantages. The main advantages of digital identities are as follows: Security: The main advantage of digital identity is its security. The data is extremely safe and secured with the help of digital identity. Data Integrity: The integrity of the data is not lost because of digital identity. This is another important advantage of digital identity. Simple: Digital identity does not require many complexities and time to get implemented (Salah et al., 2013). This is extremely simple and thus this is another important advantage of digital identity. Fast: Digital identities are extremely fast and this is another important advantage of digital identity. However, implementing digital identities in DAS can sometimes turn to be risky. These digital identities should be safe and secured so that there exists no loopholes of hacking in the data. The utilization and security of digital identities are the most important step to secure the cloud. Limited Access to Systems: All the users should not be allowed to use all the systems (Malik Nazir, 2012). DAS should allow and unauthorized users to access their computers and systems. Private WiFi Connection: DAS should install a private wireless connection for internet access. Security and access to personal information is another important step to save the privacy. The information should be secured so that the unauthorized access to various information is mitigated (Hamlen et al. 2013). Department of Administrative Services should secure their personal information by limiting the access to their personal information from unauthorized users. Quality and Correction of Personal Information The quality and the correction of personal information is another important step to keep the privacy of the data. DAS should focus on the quality of their information so that there exists no loopholes in the privacy (Liu, 2012). Moreover, the information should be corrected from time to time to avoid all sorts of errors in the information. DAS is dealing with several dangerous information that are highly confidential. There are various ways to mitigate these risks (Von Solms Van Niekerk, 2013). It is recommended that Department of Administrative Services should focus on their security of personal information. The three ways to mitigate the privacy risks of information are as follows: Encryption: The procedure of encrypting or encoding a particular message to maintain its security without changing the inner meaning is known as encryption. It encodes the entire message into a cipher text, which is only readable by the receiver. When a sender sends a message, he sends it in an encrypted form (Stallings Brown, 2012). This saves the message from getting theft and thus security is maintained. There are two main algorithms used for encryption. They are the Symmetric Key Algorithm and the Asymmetric Key Algorithm. The symmetric key algorithm is extremely simple. The sender and the receiver are provided with a key. The sender while sending a message with encodes the message with the key. Once, the receiver receives the message, he is able to decode the message with that particular key only. No other unauthorized users will get the access of the data and thus the data is absolutely secured through encryption (Van Tilborg Jajodia, 2014). The unencrypted message is known a s the plain text while, the encrypted message is known as the cipher text. The main advantage of encryption is that it is extremely secured. The second algorithm for encryption is the asymmetric algorithm. Here, the case is different from symmetric key algorithm. Here the sender and the receiver have two different keys to encode and decode the message. The sender encrypts the message with a particular key and the receiver decrypts the message with a different key. The main advantage of symmetric key algorithm is that it is extremely simple as both the keys are same. However, it has one disadvantage as well (Stallings Brown, 2012). Both the keys are same in symmetric key algorithm. Thus, if any one of them loses the key, there is a high chance that the data cannot be recovered any more. This can lead to major problem for any organization. The main advantage of asymmetric key algorithm is that the security is double than symmetric key. Since, there are two keys; there is no need to e xchange keys between the sender and the receiver. This helps to keep the keys safe and secured. However, there is a disadvantage as well. The main disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithm is its complexities. Both the keys are different and this makes it much complex than the symmetric key (Buchmann, 2013). Another disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithm is that the time consumption is more as the complexity is higher. It is highly recommended for DAS to opt for encryption, as encryption would secure their personal information. Digital Authentication: This is the second most basic and important recommended strategy to secure the data for DAS. The procedure of getting confidence in the identities of users digitally is known as digital authentication (Hamlen et al. 2013). The word authentication means to an electronic procedure, which enables any type of electronic recognition of a legal person. Authentication also saves the integrity of the data and thus it can be claimed as another strategy for privacy of data. The main advantage of digital authentication is that it mitigates the chance of data theft and fraud. In a digital authentication, the identities of the user are given to a particular information system electronically (Buchmann, 2013). There are three main factors of digital authentication. They are as follows: Knowledge Factors: These factors are nothing but the confidential knowledge of a user like the password, pin number. Ownership Factors: These factors are those that the user possesses like a credit card, one-time passwords. Inherence Factors: These factors are those factors that an user has got in inherence like the biometric identifications (Stallings Brown, 2012). Fingerprint and face recognitions are two famous inherence factors. Digital Signatures: This is the third important strategy to reduce the privacy risks is the implementation of digital signatures. DAS can protect their data by implementing this very safe and secured data security strategy in their organization. this is nothing but a digital code, which is created by public key encryption and is utilized to verify an users identity (Kahate, 2013). It also verifies the contents of the message that are sent over the network. DAS should implement digital signatures for their private cloud. The main advantages of digital signature are the speed, cost, security, authenticity, imposter prevention, time stamp and tracking. These advantages will help DAS to protect their data and thus the privacy should be secured. However, digital signatures do have some disadvantages (Salomaa, 2013). The disadvantages of digital signatures include expiry of the signatures, need for verification software, compatibility, need for implementation of digital certificates. In sp ite of these disadvantages, digital signatures are one of the famous strategies for privacy of data. It is highly recommended for DAS. Personal Data Protection Strategy Department of Administrative Services or DAS is having problems in securing their personal data. This type of data should be secured and safe on immediate basis. There is a high risk that the data will be lost and the hackers and the unauthorized users will be able to access them (Salah et al. 2013). The access should be authorized so that the integrity of the information does not get lost. This will create a major problem as every data and information are important for DAS. The access and disclosure of the personal information should be authorized so that there exists no chance of hacking and modification of personal information (Salomaa, 2013). There are several ways to stop this hacking like installing antivirus, firewalls. The procedure to prevent the identity of personal data is known as de-identification of personal data. There are several ways to stop the identification of the personal data of DAS. They will have to adopt certain measures to mitigate or reduce the hacking of data (Liu, 2012). The best ways to prevent identification of personal data is the antivirus, security policies and firewalls. Implementing these techniques can help DAS to prevent their data identification. Digital identities are an important solution to their problem. A digital identity is data of an organization that is utilized to depict an external representative. This particular representative can be an individual, an organization or an application (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). There are various advantages of digital identities. The advantages of digital identities are as follows: Security: The main advantage of digital identity is its security. The data is extremely safe and secured with the help of digital identity. Data Integrity: The integrity of the data is not lost because of digital identity. This is another important advantage of digital identity. Simple: Digital identity does not require much complexities and time to get implemented. This is extremely simple and thus this is another important advantage of digital identity. Fast: Digital identities are extremely fast and this is another important advantage of digital identity. Security of Personal Data Security and access to personal information is another important step to save the privacy. The information should be secured so that the unauthorized access to various information is mitigated (Katz Lindell, 2014). Department of Administrative Services should secure their personal information by limiting the access to their personal information from unauthorized users. Securing and archiving personal data is an important step to secure the personal information. DAS should implement various strategies to secure their personal information as it is important for their business (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). Personal data are protected and secured through several strategies. Three strategies are recommended for Department of Administrative Services. They are as follows: Periodic Back up and Recovery: Personal information should be recovered periodically and back ups should be taken time to time (Peltier, 2016). This will help Department of Administrative Services to recover their lost data and to will not lose their confidential data any more. Remote Data Movement: Real time and non real time movement of data from a particular storage to another secured storage is another strategy for protecting data and information. There is always a high chance of losing of data and information if they are stored for longer period of time (Ali, Khan Vasilakos, 2015). The system or the storage may be damaged and thus the data can be lost. Two popular forms of data movement are the replication and the remote copy. These two techniques will help DAS to save their data and to save the storage system. Data Lifecycle Management: DLM or Data Lifecycle Management is the automatic movement of data to offline and online storage (Von Solms Van Niekerk, 2013). The major features of data lifecycle management are keeping the data in a particular storage that is read easily and cannot be modified. These three strategies will help DAS to secure their personal information and the information will not be lost. Conclusion Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that, Department of Administrative Services or DAS gives various services to the Australian State Government. The services are procurement, payroll, human resource management, personnel management and contractor management. Due to the recent changes in the policies of the government, Department of Administrative Services is shifting to a new approach known as the Shared Service approach. This particular approach means that a fixed number of services will be controlled by DAS for the benefit of the Whole of Government (WofG). DAS has to follow various strategies and tasks. They have to secure their data and information through various ways and strategies. The report provides a brief description on how to manage and control personal information, utilization and security of digital identities, security and access to personal information, quality and rectification of personal information. The report also provides perfect recommenda tions on several strategies to secure the privacy of personal information in DAS. The report further covers a personal data protection strategy for DAS with the ability to control the unauthorized access to the personal information. Proper recommendations are also provided to mitigate the security risks for the protection of data. References Ali, M., Khan, S. U., Vasilakos, A. V. (2015). Security in cloud computing: Opportunities and challenges.Information Sciences,305, 357-383. Aljawarneh, S. (2012). Cloud security engineering: Avoiding security threats the right way.Cloud Comput. Adv. Des. Implementation, Technol., 147. Almorsy, M., Grundy, J., Mller, I. (2016). 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Beyond lightning: A survey on security challenges in cloud computing.Computers Electrical Engineering,39(1), 47-54. Salah, K., Calero, J. M. A., Zeadally, S., Al-Mulla, S., Alzaabi, M. (2013). Using cloud computing to implement a security overlay network.IEEE security privacy,11(1), 44-53. Salomaa, A. (2013).Public-key cryptography. Springer Science Business Media. Stallings, W., Brown, L. (2012). Computer security.Principles and practice (2 nd ed). Edinburgh Gate: Pearson education limited. Suresh, K. S., Prasad, K. V. (2012). Security issues and security algorithms in cloud computing.International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering,2(10). Tianfield, H. (2012, October). Security issues in cloud computing. InSystems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on(pp. 1082-1089). IEEE. Tsai, H. Y., Siebenhaar, M., Miede, A., Huang, Y., Steinmetz, R. (2012). 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